By Weng W. Chow, Stephan W. Koch
This booklet provides an in-depth dialogue of the semiconductor-laser achieve medium. The optical and digital homes of semiconductors, rather semiconductor quantum-well structures, are analzyed intimately, overlaying a large choice of near-infrared platforms without or with pressure, in addition to wide-gap fabrics comparable to the group-III nitride compounds or the II-VI fabrics. the $64000 bandstructure adjustments and Coulomb interplay results are mentioned, together with the answer of the longstanding semiconductor laser lineshape challenge. Quantitative comparisons among measured and envisioned gain/absorption and refractive index spectra for a wide selection of semiconductor-laser fabrics let the theoretical effects for use at once within the engineering of complicated laser and amplifier buildings. A walth of examples for plenty of various fabric mixtures bestow the publication with quantitative and predictive worth for a large choice of purposes.
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Extra resources for Semiconductor Laser Fundamentals
6(a), the ray paths will bend upward which for the case of Fig. 6(b), the ray paths will bend downward (Fig. 7). (a) (b) (f) Fig. 7 Typical ray paths correspondingto the velocityprofiles shown in Fig. 6. Note that in (c) the sound ray gets trapped in the ocean. Such a system is called an underwater sound channel and can be used for long distance under water communicationwith sound. osr' If the ray is launched horizontally (8 = 0) from the point x = 0, then ~ = cos8(x) l+gx Optical Lagrangian 53 Thus R =-30000m The negative sign implying that the ray is curved downwards.
1960). 2. M. Bornand E. Wolf, Principles ofoptics,Pergamon Press, Oxford (1975). 3. Ghatakand K. Thyagarajan,/ntroductioll to FiberOptics, Cambridge University Press(1998). 4. S. J. (1984). 4. RAY PATHS IN MEDIA WITH SPHERICAL AND CYLINDRICAL SYMMETRY Introduction In this chapter we will discuss the solutions of the Lagrange's equations for media having spherical and cylindrical symmetry. Ray paths in cylindrically symmetric media are of tremendous importance in fiber optics. , where the refractive index is a function of the radial coordinate r alone, the rays are confined to a single plane.
Consequently objects are not where they seem to be but are actually a little lower than the direction in which our eyes look to see them. If we have an inversion layer where n(y) increases with altitude, dn > 0 and the ray is concave dy upward forming mirages . Consider the example of road surface mirages. Since the hot air rises, on a hot road surface the air lower down is hotter and less dense than layers above. This is an inversion layer. Throughout the layer the pressure P is roughly constant.