By Kevin J. Yarema
The guide of Carbohydrate Engineering offers an summary of the fundamental technological know-how, conception, tools, and purposes of this huge, interdisciplinary box. The textual content presents historical past info besides useful wisdom for present and destiny learn methodologies utilized in the characterization and synthesis of assorted carbohydrates. This multidisciplinary point of view consists of elements of simple biology, artificial chemistry, enzymology, complicated instrumentation, and complex modeling.
The e-book provides the basics of carbohydrate engineering, addressing ideas in constitution, biosynthesis, and organic capabilities for quite a few carbohydrates with a specific emphasis on mammalian glycoproteins and their N-linked oligosaccharides, glycolipids, sialic acid, in addition to polysaccharides from either eukaryotes and micro organism. It describes glycosylation tactics present in nature and surveys the right way to control those metabolic structures in residing cells either for the enhanced construction of carbohydrates and to offer those molecules novel homes. next sections talk about some of the equipment of purification, synthesis, amendment, and research used to create and control carbohydrates within the laboratory; those techniques contain chemical-enzymatic synthesis, small-molecule cell-based recommendations, in addition to whole chemical synthesis.
The instruction manual of Carbohydrate Engineering additionally makes a speciality of useful functions for carbohydrates. It emphasizes the way to symbolize glycosylation pathways and expounds upon the function of carbohydrates in overall healthiness and illness, an important - and speedily becoming - sector of analysis. World-renowned specialists speak about biomedical purposes, together with the improvement of vaccines, therapeutics, glycomimetics, antibody engineering, drug supply, tissue engineering and organ regeneration, and diagnostic brokers. a number of chapters additionally conceal vital functions in agriculture, undefined, nutrients know-how, and environmental remediation.
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Additional info for Handbook of Carbohydrate Engineering
V. 211 Carlos A. 247 Michael P. Murrell, Kevin J. 339 Andrew J. Cairns and Sophie J. 371 Pamela Stanley and Santosh K. 407 Karthik Viswanathan and Michael J. 479 Clare M. Taylor and Ian S. 507 Horacio Bach and David L. 535 Hong Kyoon No, Witoon Prinyawiwatkul, and Samuel P. 563 Sherie L. 613 Ronald P. de Vries, Maureen C. 687 Jennifer C. Wilson, Milton J. K. 817 Wen Guang Liu, William W. 837 Dietmar W. W. qxd 3/19/2005 1:12 PM Page 1 Glycosylation: 1 Mammalian An Overview of Carbohydrate Biosynthesis Hao Chen, Zhiyun Wang, Zhonghui Sun, Eun Jeong Kim, and Kevin J.
1. Glucose: Glucose can meet several fates in a cell. Generally, it is phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent reaction to form Glc-6P upon entering a cell. Glc-6P can be converted into Glc-1P by phosphoglucomutase and then activated and used with the UDP-Glc nucleotide sugar donor, which can be further converted into UDPGlcA or UDP-Gal. In an alternative reaction, Glc-6P can be isomerized to Fru-6P that can then be converted into Fru-1,6P2 and used for energy production via the glycolysis pathway. Alternatively, Fru-6P can be converted into GlcN-6P; this intermediate can subsequently be used for the biosynthesis of GlcNAc, GalNAc, or sialic acid.
In the past, it has been assumed that there is a specific transporter for each sugar but this simplified view is proving incorrect as evidence accumulates that certain transporters accept multiple substrates; conversely, sugars such as UDP-GlcNAc are transported by multiple transporters. In vitro studies performed with Golgi vesicles derived from rat liver, mammary gland, and yeast cells have shown that the transport of nucleotide sugar donors is organelle-specific. 3). These compounds enter the ER or Golgi lumens through transporters with Km values in the range of 1–10 µM; the transport of nucleotide sugar into these vesicles concentrates them relative to their cytoplasmic levels as lumen concentrations of often 100 µM or higher.