By World Bank
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Major technological changes affected fishing in both industrial and developing countries. Stern trawlers combined with on-board filleting and plate freezing allowed fishing to extend over much longer periods and over greater distances. Spillover effects from technological developments in other sectorsradar, Sonar, and monofilament netsalso gave rise to changes in fishing. These changes, in combination with the development of the power block, allowed tuna fishing to extend into distant waters. Similar changes, in conjunction with increased demand for fish meal in the commercial meat industry, led to the rapid development of fisheries for small pelagic species.
This principle emerged during the early 1600s as the Dutch fleets demanded access to areas of the North Sea claimed by the British. National limits became restricted in distance from shore and all fleets had free and open access to any waters beyond these limits, and thus to many of the most productive areas. By the 1960s large distant-water fleets had expanded their activities to almost all the resource-rich areas of the oceans. The condition of free and open access also penetrated to areas within national jurisdictions where local communities of small-scale fisherfolk had traditionally exercised exclusive use rights.
This approach primarily implied the superimposition of a modern, capital-intensive, specialized technology over the traditional base, which was largely labor-intensive and of great technical diversity. It assumed that this base was a hindrance to development and had to be either transformed or completely phased out" (Kurien and Achari 1989). Fisheries research agendas during this period were shaped by opportunities for expanding production and the experience of industrial countries in achieving greater catches, by large-scale fleets, from the big stocks of individual species in temperate waters.