Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology Vol. I by Charles Spielberger

By Charles Spielberger

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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology Vol. I

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Atkinson postulated that achievement behavior involved a conflict between a motive to approach a task (hope for success) and a motive to avoid it (fear of failure). These motives conflict because any achievement task carries with it the possibilities of success and failure. The achievement motivation that results in any situation depends on people’s expectancies of success and failure and their incentive values of success and failure. The historical research focused on achievement motivation globally, that is, motivation across many situations.

Berry, & N. ), Health and cross-cultural psychology (pp. 207–236). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Berry, J. , & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21, 491–511. Berry, J. , & Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology, 38, 185–206. Berry, J. , Poortinga, Y. , Segall, M. , & Dasen, P. R. (2002). ). New York: Cambridge University Press. Graves, T. (1967). Psychological acculturation in a tri-ethnic community.

Families that provide rich resources in the home and guide their children into activities that stress motivation and achievement are apt to develop children higher in achievement motivation. Cultural factors also affect motivation. Cross-cultural research shows that there are differences in how much cultures emphasize education and motivation for learning. For example, children from Asian cultures often place greater emphasis on effort as a cause of success than do students in the United States.

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