By Etain Tannam (auth.)
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Additional info for Cross-Border Cooperation in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland
Supranational Hypotheses Functionalism Neo-Functionalism Economic interdependence leads to 'bottom-up' economic and political cooperation: sovereignty shared. Commission leads to elite-driven economic cooperation which leads to political cooperation: sovereignty eroded. 2. Intergovernmental Hypotheses Neo-Realism (i) Neo-Realism (ii) Neo-Realism (iii) Neo-Realism (iv) Economic cooperation and political cooperation do not occur, because of the ethnic conflict in Northern Ireland (sovereignty not eroded), or Economic cooperation occurs because of Anglo-Irish policy, but not political cooperation (sovereignty not eroded), or Economic and political cooperation occur because of Anglo-Irish policy (sovereignty not eroded), or Joint authority occurs because of Anglo-Irish policy.
There is a number of groups which are insulated from each other in that their interests and associations do not overlap with each other and there are few crosscutting cleavages (Taylor, 1991, p. 110). ). ). ). The existence of these features assumes the existence of certain conditions. For example, elites must possess the will to resolve conflict (O'Leary, 1989, p. 576). ). ). Thus, in a consociation, all groups are in a no-win situation. Unless they cooperate with each other, they will not be able to exercise their will effectively on policy outcomes.
Consequently, each individual builds up his/her own defences. In international politics, this defence entails the maximisation of state power in the international system. International law 'is divorced altogether from ethics It is an expression of the will of the state and it is used by those who control the state as an instrument of coercion against those who oppose their power' (Carr, 1981, p. 176). For realists power was anything that established and maintained an individual state's control over other states.