By Jonas Hallström.
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Additional info for Constructing a pipe-bound city : a history of water supply, sewerage, and excreta removal in Norrköping and Linköping, Sweden, 1860-1910
Central to the argument of this dissertation is the interrelatedness of things, that actors associate themselves with other actors and actants to become more powerful. But in each actor-network there are one or several centers of power, from which translation originates. All these actor-networks were mobilized for different temporary projects in the cities, apart from the national networks of engineers and physicians, which were more durable. The local actor-networks were parts of more permanent, class-bound networks, which due to the scope of this study cannot be examined in their entirety, but the analysis should be able to make them surface to a certain degree.
Workers were not represented at all until 1906, when the first worker and Social Democrat was elected, but in the communal elections of 1909 and 1914 a few more were elected. There were conflicts about certain issues over the years, as we shall see, but few of these concerned basic ideological issues (except in the question of customs duties in the 1880s). 119 Bourgeois ideology and culture in Norrköping was thus very stable. A potential source of conflict might have been the sometimes opposing interests of wholesale trade and industry, but a special characteristic of Norrköping was that many wholesale dealers also were factory owners, especially textile 120 industrialists.
38; Söderberg 1968 p. 17-73; Hugerth 1996 p. 2; Schön 2000 p. 97-98. Panorama of Norrköping, by P. L. Andersen, 1876 (Source: Norrköping City Archives). 32 Introduction Introduction 33 In the 1840s and 1850s the popularity of finer cloth declined, and the demand among workers and farmers for cheap fabrics increased. The textile manufacturers consequently had to mechanize production to be able to mass produce this cloth. Mechanization meant enormous investments for the small woolen manufacturers, and some instead invested in the cotton industry, which became more technically advanced due to the acquisition of British spinning machines.