By Ian Dempsey, Karen Nankervis
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Extra info for Community Disability Services: An Evidence-Based Approach to Practice
2003). The impact of personal characteristics of people with intellectual and developmental disability on self-determination and autonomous functioning. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 16, 4, 255–65. Wehmeyer, M. L. & Shalock, R. L. (2001). Self-determination and quality of life: Implications for special education services and supports. Focus on Exceptional Children, 33, 8, 1–16. WHO see World Health Organisation World Health Organisation (2001a). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-10).
This challenge was taken up by Disabled Peoples’ International (DPI), which is a cross-disability network with over 160 national assembly members. The DPI was a major contributor to the development of the Standard Rules, and the DPI World Council has continued to work with national assemblies to promote a UN Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons to promote and protect the human rights of all people with a disability. The work of the UN, coupled with the ongoing development of human rights and discrimination legislation in particular countries, has given a voice to many disabled people.
Two concepts have dominated discussion in this area: empowerment (Henderson & Pochin, 2001) and self-determination (Wehmeyer & Garner, 2003). Both concepts address a desire to promote an understanding of, and some control over, the life circumstances of people with a disability by those people themselves. Crucial to the promotion of empowerment and self-determination is that professionals give up some power in their relationship with their clients. Examples of strategies that can be used to promote self-determination and empowerment are: • providing genuine opportunities for choice • giving people a say in important decisions • making people aware of options • providing the skills to plan, to set goals, and to reflect on achievement (Wehmeyer & Shalock, 2001).