CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors by Markus Graf, Diego Barrettino, Henry P. Baltes, Andreas

By Markus Graf, Diego Barrettino, Henry P. Baltes, Andreas Hierlemann

The e-book "CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors" presents a complete therapy of the interdisciplinary box of CMOS technology-based chemical microsensor platforms, and, specifically, of microhotplate-based platforms. The ebook is, at the one hand, particular at scientists and engineers which are drawn to getting first insights within the box of microhotplates and similar chemical sensing, due to the fact that all valuable basic wisdom is incorporated. nevertheless, it additionally addresses specialists within the box because it offers certain info on all very important matters regarding figuring out microhotplates and, in particular, microhotplate-based chemical sensors in CMOS technology.A huge variety of microhotplate realizations and integrated-sensor-system implementations illustrate the present state-of-the-art and, whilst, provide an effect of the long run capability of chemical microsensors in CMOS know-how. given that microsensors produce "microsignals", sensor miniaturization with out sensor integration is, in lots of situations, liable to failure. This e-book can assist to bare the advantages of utilizing built-in electronics and CMOS-technology for constructing microhotplates and the corresponding chemical microsensor platforms and, particularly, the benefits that consequence from figuring out monolithically built-in sensor structures comprising transducers and linked circuitry on a unmarried chip.

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Afterwards, the membrane model is transferred back to a simplified 3-d description of the membrane, the different sections of which exhibit homogeneous heat conductivity and constant thickness. Finally, the membrane structure is combined with the supporting silicon frame and the surrounding air. The result is a geometry model for the FEM simulation as discussed in Sect. 3. The input parameters for a lumped-model description (Sect. 4) of the microhotplate are calculated from the simulation results.

4. Schematic of the functional elements of the microhotplate. Rheat denotes the heating resistance, RS is the metal-oxide resistance measured between the electrode contacts E+ and E−, and RT is the temperaturesensor resistance V heat– I T– I heat– V T– E– the measurements. Using a calibration polynomial for each sensor (see Sect. 4), the temperature rise upon membrane heating was recorded, and the resulting correlation between heating power and microhotplate temperature was established. In order to determine the thermal time constant of the microhotplate in dynamic measurements, a square-shape voltage pulse was applied to the heater.

Membrane Release The membranes of the microhotplates were released by anisotropic, wet-chemical etching in KOH. In order to fabricate defined Si-islands that serve as heat spreaders of the microhotplate, an electrochemical etch stop (ECE) technique using a 4-electrode configuration was applied [109]. ECE on fully processed CMOS wafers requires, that all reticles on the wafers are electrically interconnected to provide distributed biasing to the n-well regions and the substrate from two contact pads [110].

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