By Professor Jeremy Seekings
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Extra resources for Class, Race, and Inequality in South Africa
A and discussion in Houghton , ). There were, however, almost no data about intraracial distribution, making it very diﬃcult to measure overall inequality. Perhaps because there were so few data, social scientists seem to have avoided theorising about inequality in South Africa. The ﬁrst attempt to examine the character of inequality in South Africa seems to have been Knight’s application in of the Lewis dual economy model. ” The population could be divided into three groups: a proﬁt-receiving capitalist group, a fully employed skilled white group paid high wages (in part owing to high productivity and in part comprising a monopoly rent derived from the inelastic supply of skilled labour that itself was due to racial discrimination), and an unskilled, underemployed black group paid low wages (because of the eﬀectively unlimited supply of cheap labour).
When the Union of South Africa was established in , one of the new country’s four provinces (the Cape Province) retained its nominally and incompletely nonracial franchise; African and coloured men who satisﬁed property and literacy tests could vote in provincial and national elections. But in the rest of the country, only white men had a role in electing legislatures. ) In the s, African voters in the Cape were put onto a separate voters’ roll and thereafter were only permitted to elect white representatives to Parliament.
The Periodisation of Distributional Regimes in South Africa Uneven deracialisation of wage-setting institutions, resulting in partial inclusion of organised African workers in centralised bargaining system Massive expansion of schooling for black children, but quality of schooling remains low and expenditure discriminates by race Taxes mostly paid by the rich; redistribution to urban Africans and to the poor in general as pensions and education expand Less racially discriminatory; coverage extended; pension becomes a major instrument for redistribution Late Apartheid continued Taxes mostly paid by the rich; improved redistribution to the poor via expansion of services Removal of racial discrimination; extension of UIF and child grants; erosion of the real value of the pension Removal of racial discrimination in expenditure; expenditure becomes pro-poor; rise of class-based distinctions (private schools and so on) Complete deracialisation; strengthening of unions and centralised bargaining by Labour Relations Act and other legislation; extension of minimum wage-setting to unorganised sectors Post-Apartheid 38 Growth strategy Employmentsetting labourmarket policies Pre-Apartheid Early Apartheid Late Apartheid Post-Apartheid Job reservation in mines; Increase in job reservation in early Uneven deracialisation; Removal of last vestiges African peasantry period (but colour bar “floated attempt to coopt a stabilised of labour-market disundermined; “civilised up” from the mid-1960s); urban African labour force.