Ciba Foundation Symposium - The Nature of Sleep by G E W and O'Connor, M Eolstenholme

By G E W and O'Connor, M Eolstenholme

Chapter 1 Chairman's beginning comments (pages 1–3): Sir John Eccles
Chapter 2 a few homes of Pyramidal Neurones of the Motor Cortex (pages 4–29): C. G. Phillps
Chapter three Neurophysiological Mechanisms in Cerebral Arousal (pages 30–56): Frederic Bremer
Chapter four Electroencephalogram?Synchronizing buildings within the decrease mind Stem (pages 57–85): J. Magnes, G. Moruzzi and O. Pompeiano
Chapter five Mechanisms of Reticular Deactivation (pages 86–107): P. Dell, M. Bonvallet and A. Hugelin
Chapter 6 Neuronal job in Wakefulness and in Sleep (pages 108–130): M. Verzeano and okay. Negishi
Chapter 7 Neuronal Discharge within the Cat's Motor Cortex in the course of Sleep and Arousal (pages 131–170): Otto Creutzfeldt and Richard Jung
Chapter eight results of Sleep and Waking on task of unmarried devices within the Unrestrained Cat (pages 171–187): Edward V. Evarts
Chapter nine Telencephalic and Rhombencephalic Sleep within the Cat (pages 188–208): M. Jouvet
Chapter 10 A scientific, Electroencephalographic and Polygraphic research of Sleep within the Human grownup (pages 209–236): H. Fischgold and B. A. Schwartz
Chapter eleven alterations of Cortical D.C. Potentials within the Sleep?Wakefulness Cycle (pages 237–259): Heinz Caspers
Chapter 12 Electroencephalographic Detection of Sleep brought on through Repetitive Sensory Stimuli (pages 260–283): H. Gastaut and J. Bert
Chapter thirteen Electrographic Responses in napping Conditioned Animals (pages 284–306): Vernon Rowland
Chapter 14 Hibernation and Sleep (pages 307–321): Paavo Suomalainen
Chapter 15 Sleep styles on Polar Expeditions (pages 322–328): H. E. Lewis
Chapter sixteen results of Sleep?Deprivation on functionality and Muscle rigidity (pages 329–342): R. T. Wilkinson
Chapter 17 Cortical functionality in the course of Human Sleep (pages 343–348): I. Oswald, Anne M. Taylor and M. Treisman
Chapter 18 the character of Dreaming (pages 349–374): Nathaniel Kleitman
Chapter 19 Sleep and the strength Metabolism of the mind (pages 375–396): Seymour S. Kety
Chapter 20 Chairman's remaining comments (pages 397–400): Sir John Eccles

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Excitatory synaptic action may be powerful enough to cause inactivation (“cathodal depression”) of the pyramidal cell. Fig. 6 shows this clearly. The pyramidal shocks were strong enough to include this cell’s axon in the pyramidal volleys. /sec. tetanus. Each shock contributes its wave of synaptic depolarization(EPSP). At the end of the tetanus, the membrane re-polarizes. The sweep (above) expands the initial responses of the series. The first shock excites an antidromic 18 C . G . PHILLIPS impulseandasmallEPSP.

This was achieved by the use of four fine cathodes spanning I mm. across the exposed surface of the belly ofthe pyramid at its thickest part (Philhps, 1959). In this way a portion of the pyramid was, as it were, dissected electricallyinto four bundles, in one of which the axon of the Betz cell would be enclosed. This axon served as a control of the depth of penetration into the pyramid of stimulating current of liminal density. Shocks of threshold strength for antidromic excitation of this axon at the appropriate cathode were usually ineffective when applied to an adjacent cathode.

The addition of their contingent to the neurones recruited in the subliminal fringe should result in the overall potentiation of the response. The following indirect arguments can be advanced in support of this interpretation: (a) in the absence of a neuroleptic drug (like amphetamine) the effect of reticular stimulation on the cat’s visual area response to a geniculate or optic nerve stimulation has been 44 FRBDBRIC BRBMBR uniformly dynamogenic in our experiments; (b) the depression of the evoked potential which reticular stimulation may exert after an amphetamine injection (Bremer and Stoupel, 1959b) can be explained by the extreme cortical activation and by the resulting occlusive effect produced by the addition of two powerful arousals (amphetamine alone produces a potentiation of the response) ;(c) a strong EEG overt activation characterized by a marked amplification of the accelerated cortical potentials, an amplification indicating the recruitment of masses of neurones (Fig.

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