By John E.J. Schmitz
This monograph condenses the correct and pertinent literature on blanket and selective CVD of tungsten (W) right into a unmarried achievable quantity. The booklet offers the reader with the required historical past to raise, high quality track, and effectively retain a CVD-W strategy in a construction set-up. fabrics deposition chemistry, gear, technique expertise, advancements, and functions are defined.
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Extra info for Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten and Tungsten Silicides for VLSI/ ULSI Applications
48 , RosIer et a1. 8) where P SiH4 represents the silane partial pressure. We see that the local pressures of the reducers determine the local growth rates and consequently the step coverage. 7 [Kleijn et a1. 8 are no longer valid. The local concentrations needed in these equations are deternlined by the rate of consumption (because of the surface reactions) and the rate 27 The blanket tungsten approach Knudsen cliff. in contact. Bulk diffusion of reactan into contact. 9. Mass transport in a small pore (or contact).
From Hasper et al. 32 Reprinted with permission] . amount of surface diffusion in CVD-W is negligibly small and of no importance [Schmitz et a1. 43]. More support for this view point can be obtained from the simulation by Hasper et. a1. 32. They showed good agreement between calculated and experimental step coverages (for the hydrogen case) using a model with no surface diffusion incorporated. 16. 15. Contact (left) and trench (right) with same aspect ratio (about 3). Opening about 2 Ilm. [SEM courtesy or A.
T ....... _~_~ ,. 3. Excellent step coverage of CVD-TiN (TiCIJNH3 chemistry). Contact diameter 1 pm. [SEM courtesy I. Raaijmakers, Signetics Corporation). determined. This should be verified after the measurements by a deprocessing of the samples and a careful SEM inspection. For more details see Pellogrini et a1. 24, Naem et a1. 25 , Loh et a1. 26, Scorzoni et a1. 27 , Wright et at. 28. 4 Step Coverage A critical issue is the step coverage of the adhesion layer. This should be sufficient such that both the adhesion and the (chemical) barrier properties of the film are maintained.