Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, by Franz L. Neumann

By Franz L. Neumann

Franz Neumann's vintage account of the governmental workings of Nazi Germany, first released in 1942, is reprinted in a brand new paperback version with an creation through the celebrated historian Peter Hayes. Neumann was once one of many simply early Frankfurt institution thinkers to envision heavily the matter of political associations. After the increase of the Nazis to energy, his emphasis shifted to an research of monetary strength, after which after the struggle to political psychology. yet his contributions in Behemoth have been groundbreaking: that the Nazi association of society concerned the cave in of conventional principles of the kingdom, of ideology, of legislations, or even of any underlying rationality. The e-book has to be studied, no longer easily learn, Raul Hilberg wrote. the main skilled researchers will let us know that the scarcest commodity in educational lifestyles is an unique inspiration. If a person has or 3, he's wealthy. Franz Neumann was once a wealthy guy. released in organization with the USA Holocaust Memorial Museum.

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He represented a coalition of the army, the bureaucracy, and the owners of the large estates and factories for the joint exploitation of the state. 10 The reserve officer was the key actor in this process. Drawn from the ‘educated’ and privileged stratum of society, he replaced the less privileged but more liberal Landwehr officer. 1' As for socialists, it was decided that they lacked the necessary moral qualifications to be officers. The third step was the reconciliation between agrarian and in­ dustrial capital.

T h e y accepted the collective-bargaining agreem ent as the means for regu­ lating wages and labor conditions and promised to co-operate with the trade unions generally in industrial matters. T h e re could hardly have been a more tru ly pluralist docum ent than this agreem ent be­ tw een private groups, establishing as the fu tu re stru ctu re of G erm an labor relations a collectivist system set up and controlled b y auton­ omous groups. 3. T h e agreement of 22 and 23 M arch 1919 b etw een the govern­ ment, the Social D em ocratic p arty , and leading p a rty officials con­ tained the follow ing provision: T h e re shall be legally regulated w o rk ers’ representation to super­ vise production, distribution, and the econom ic life of the nation, to inspect socialized enterprises, and to co n trib u te to w a rd bringing about nationalization.

There was no universally accepted ideology to hold it together (nor was there a loyal opposition in the form of a militant liberal movement). It is strikingly evident that Imperial Germany was the one great power without any accepted theory of the state. Where was the seat of sovereignty, for example? The Reichstag was not a parliamentary institution. It could compel neither the appointment nor the dismissal of cabinet ministers. Only indirectly could it exert political influence, especially after Bismarck’s dismissal, but never more than that.

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