Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process by Lewis Lockwood

By Lewis Lockwood

It's renowned that Mozart built his works in his head after which easily transcribed them onto paper, whereas Beethoven laboured assiduously over sketches and drafts. certainly Beethoven's wide sketchbooks (which overall over 8,000 pages) and the autograph manuscripts, overlaying numerous levels of improvement, demonstrate the composer systematically exploring and evolving his musical rules. via shut research of person works, Lewis Lockwood lines the inventive technique because it emerges in Beethoven's sketches and manuscripts. 4 experiences deal with the composition of the "Eroica" symphony from quite a few viewpoints. The chamber works mentioned contain the Cello Sonata in an important, Opus sixty nine (of which the whole autograph manuscripts of the 1st flow is released right here in facsimile), the string quartet Opus fifty nine No. 1, and the Cavatina of the later quartet Opus one hundred thirty. Lockwood's research complements our realizing of Beethoven's musical thoughts and stylistic advancements in addition to the compositional method itself. In a last bankruptcy the writer outlines the significance of Beethoven's autographs for the trendy performer. Lewis Lockwood is usually writer of "Music in Renaissance Ferrara" which received the Kinkeldey (music) and Marraro (history) prizes.

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1 6 4 - 1 6 5 , and then decided to go back and revise m m . 2 5 - 2 6 in the light of the version desired for the recapitulation; or (2) he may have revised m m . 2 5 - 2 6 at once, or at least while still working on the exposition, before writing down m m . 1 6 4 - 1 6 5 and perhaps before he was entirely sure in just what details the recapitulation would differ. In cases of this sort, where second choices in the exposition appear as first choices in the recapitulation, the recapitulation represents a later stage in more than the obvious sense.

38/3. This idea is lightly sketched again at bar 42 (гг/10/4), where two d#'s in the rhythm J I J ί are faintly visible in the right hand in a tiny hand, as if this possibility lingered as an afterthought. 3b. This version of the Pfte material, in simultaneous oc- 40 A U T O G R A P H OF T H E F I R S T M O V E M E N T OF O P U S 69 taves, is simpler in articulation than the final imitative version that was to supplant it; moreover, it explicitly effects an exact rhythmic correspondence between Pfte mm.

Beethoven's first corExample 2,1 etc. rection (misprint list Nos. 6, 7, and 8) is to remove the J f at m. 1 and at the returns (mm. 197 and 393). The difference is obviously of drastic importance for the whole movement; but by the next day he had changed his mind once more. Now, he writes, the jfshould be restored in all these places. Thus, so far as the evidence shows, his final stated intention was to have the piano's first phrase ffin all three of its statements, contrasting with ρ at the cello repetition nine bars later—but every edition since the early ones has made the piano's passage^, as if they were following his first misprint list but did not know of the letter that followed two days later.

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