Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages: The Bestiary and Its by Willene B. Clark (Editor), Meradith T. McMunn (Editor) ,

By Willene B. Clark (Editor), Meradith T. McMunn (Editor) , University of Pennsylvania Press (December 1989)

The medieval bestiary, or moralized ebook of beasts, has loved colossal reputation over the centuries and it maintains to steer either literature and artwork. This selection of essays goals to illustrate the scope and diversity of bestiary reports and the ways that the medieval bestiary should be addressed. The members write concerning the culture of 1 of the bestiary's birds, Parisian construction of the manuscripts, bestiary animals in a liturgical booklet, theological in addition to secular interpretations of beasts, bestiary creatures in literature, and new views at the bestiary in different genres.

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In its 1901 memorandum the Colonial Defence Committee again raised the question of an imperial contribution. While it conceded that the prerogative of providing support belonged to the Commonwealth, it also made clear that it hoped Australia would dedicate a force for the defence of the empire. The committee advanced the idea that, after the demonstrated success of its mounted infantry in South Africa, Australia should strengthen this arm and establish it as a source of troops for overseas service in time of war.

60 Meeting for the first time on 12 May 1905, the Council of Defence attempted to fulfil its role, as McCay sought, to define a middle ground for Australian defence policy. While he was cognisant of the importance of the Royal Navy and its role as the first line of defence for the Commonwealth, McCay also wanted to stress the function of land forces in the defence of population and industrial centres. He also noted that the army would provide the troops necessary to secure the defence of the ports from which the fleet would operate.

The colonies had made no attempt to standardise their armaments, and the army inherited eight kinds of calibres, including some of which there were only two in the nation. ’ This statement was more than just a recognition of the Commonwealth’s abdication of responsibility for the conduct of its foreign affairs in favour of the Foreign Office in London. As Neville Meaney points out, Barton was also making a reference to his belief that it was necessary for a single voice to speak for the empire and that Australia would consequently rely upon Britain to represent its external policy interests.

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