Aquaculture, resource use, and the environment by Claude Boyd, Aaron McNevin

By Claude Boyd, Aaron McNevin

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Overflow structures with intakes near the bottom in the deepest area of ponds sometimes are installed to avoid discharge after heavy rainfall events of plankton that inhabits the upper layer of illuminated water (Fig. 4). Ponds can be constructed by excavating a basin in which to store water (Fig. 5). Excavated ponds usually are small because of the large volume of earth that must be removed to form them. Water for filling excavated ponds may come from wells, streams or lakes, irrigation systems, or overland flow.

Little overland flow enters embankment ponds because the watershed is limited to the sides and tops of embankments. There are few regions in the world where rainwater and overflow will maintain water levels in embankment ponds year round. 6 Embankment ponds used for channel catfish farming in the United States. 7 Plastic-lined ponds on the Claude Peteet Mariculture Center, Gulf Shores, Alabama (United States). Courtesy of David Cline. lakes, estuaries or the sea. For example, the US channel catfish industry in western Mississippi and southeastern Arkansas uses embankment ponds filled by well water.

Large areas of coastal land in certain South American and Asian countries were converted to shrimp ponds, and cage culture of salmon in coastal waters became common in a few countries—Norway and Chile in particular. The aquaculture industry suddenly was no longer so appealing to eNGOs; it had taken on many of the features of large-scale agribusiness (Bailey and Skladany 1991; Khor 1995). The complaints against aquaculture by environmentalists have focused on feedbased aquaculture for export markets (Naylor et al.

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