# Appl of PCs to Enhance Oper, Mgmt of Research Reactors (IAEA

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CQT For the conductivity k =k0 + k-|T + 2 For the dynamic viscosity 2 6 M=M 0 + M-|T + M2T + ................... 00284 J2 I. 5 Onset of Nucleate Boiling Nucleate boiling occurs at a surface temperature above Tsat by a quantity Ts - Tsat . 46 Pz ) /8-23 This correlation is applicable down to the low pressure rangecharacterizing the operating conditions of research and test reactors. The actual axial location at which ONB will ocur depends upon the axial heat flux distribution, coolant velocity and pressure drop along the channel.

47. C° Entrance Pressure Loss Coefficient (Dimensionless) Exit Pressure Loss Coefficient (Dimensionless) Length of Fuel plate (Coolant Channel) cm Nf Number of Fueled Plates (Dimensionless) PZ Pressure of Coolant at any Point nz" bar abs P Pressure at Channel Exit bar abs Critical Pressure of Coolant bar abs Pressure Loss at Channel Entrance bar Pressure Loss at Channel Exit bar Pressure Loss Through Channel due to Fricition bar Dynamic Pressure Loss bar Symbol AC a r /-* Hco k Ken Kex LC PC APen APex APf APd 46 2 2 NOMENCLATURE (cont) Total Pressure Loss bar Prandtls Number (Dimensionless) q Local Heat Flux w/cm qa qoNB qoFi Axial Average Heat Flux w/cm Heat Flux at Onset of Nucleate Boiling w/cm Heat Flux at Onset of Flow Instability w/cm qc Burnout (Critical) Heat Flux Q Volumetric Flow Through the Element w/cm 3 m /hr Reynolds Number (Dimensionless) Water Temperature at Core Inlet C° Water Temperature at Core Outlet C° Water Temperature Rise in the Coolant Channel C° Saturation Temperature of Water C° Clad Surfache Temperature C° Tfl Fluid Temperature C° ATsub Water Subcooling C° Fuel Meat Thickness cm Fuel Plate Thickness cm Water Channel Thickness cm U Water Velocity in the Channel m/sec U0 Water Velocitiy just beyond the Channel m/sec Critical Velocity m/sec W Water Channel Width cm wh Effective Fuel Plate Width for Heat Transfer cm Wp Total Plate Width of Chord of Curved Plate cm z Axial Location along the Channel cm X Heat Vaporization KJ/Kg u Dynamic Viscosity of Water Pa.

To take into account the variation of the parameter like viscosity and density with the temperature, the hydraulic and heat transfer part are linked via outer iteration that will be discusses subsequent to the description of the heat transfer routine. I. 2 Heat Transfer Model of HEATHYD Heat being generated in the fuel plates is mainly transfered by heat conduction across the fuel plates and removed by the forced convection of the coolant. The physical and mathematical model of the heat transfer of HEATHYD includes the equation for thermal conduction and Newton's law of cooling.