Agriculture and intellectual property rights: economic, by Vittorio Santaniello, Robert E Evenson, David Zilberman,

By Vittorio Santaniello, Robert E Evenson, David Zilberman, Gerald A Carlson

This publication has arisen from the convention entitled 'The form of the arrival agricultural biotechnology transformation: strategic funding and coverage techniques from an financial viewpoint' convened via the foreign Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology study (ICABR), held in Rome, June 17-19, 1999. Papers are divided among 4 sections protecting: felony platforms (5 papers); monetary concerns (5 papers); biotechnology innovations (2 papers); and case reviews (2 papers)- North the United States and Canada. to be had In Print

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The final point (Article 39) is a commitment for national trade secret protection, for which there is no international convention. Trade secrets provide a legal basis for recovering damages for information improperly acquired. Perhaps though, the complex requirements of TRIPs are in regards to maintaining competition and judicial reform. Maintaining competition can be 42 W. Lesser partitioned into the granting of compulsory licences and the prohibition of unfair competition. Unfair competition (Articles 17, 22–24 and 39) is, however, addressed principally through the endorsement of trade secret legislation.

In particular, little is known about the strategic decisions made by firms when introducing easily copied products into national markets. Will seed and biotechnology firms, for example, demand very secure IPR prior to introducing their products, or will they acknowledge the relative ease with which they can be appropriated and transfer under less secure conditions? Our absence of insights into these strategic positions of agribusiness firms is a serious gap in predicting the effects of IPR on agricultural technology transfer in particular.

Note that US Utility Patent protection is available for all developments. In most cases, the Utility Patent protection is the most comprehensive. However, trade secret protection may be recommended for the GENE METHOD E, assuming this method could not be easily independently developed or reverse engineered from public distribution of the resultant products. D. 1. Available IPR for AG Money developments. Contribution Trade secret CORN A Yes (control parent) No No No Yes No (unless never public) HEATHER B SOYBEAN C MAIZE D GENE METHOD E MACHINE F Plant patent (asexually produced) Plant variety protection (sexually produced) Utility patent No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes International Legal Framework The previous sections have described the US legal system for protecting inventors’ and breeders’ contributions.

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